Robby Bucoy Echavez, MAEd, RPm, RPsy, MAGC

As far as Venus and Rubelyn and their families (Appendix A), and I would assume with the millions of Filipinos who are part of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), are concerned, the answer is a resounding yes. 4Ps being the most comprehensive social welfare program in the Philippines to date, is by and large, from the viewpoints of social planners, implementers, social commentators, and even its staunchest detractors, highly relevant to the point of being considered essential. So clear is the answer to this question that many will ask if the relevance of community welfare and services need be discussed at all! However, a brief problematizing (Bacchi, 2009) of the issue reveals that there is more to this question than meets the eye. The welfare that states provide to its citizens is not a new invention. Since tribes have had structures and peoples their polities, many forms of welfare programs, packages, and policies have come and gone and there is no reason to believe that the 4Ps will not, at some future point, follow the same fate. In fact, even before such a social call can ripen and reecho throughout society, many Filipino policy makers, legislators, and intellectuals have called for its abolition.The problem then calls for a reconceptualization or another representation. It can be asked, “What form of community or social welfare and services can nations feasibly provide that best respond to its citizens needs?” Put this way, the answer to the relevance question ceases to be self-evident and begins to invite a weightier and more cautious analysis. I will not claim to respond to this question here. Suffice it to say that when represented like this, one begins to think outside the “Beveridge-style welfare…[that] is outmoded for the passivity they impose” (Cannan & Warren, 2003,p. 11) and is thrust towards “new forms of social participation [and] solidarity” (p. 12). The decades-old tensions revealed from the vantage point of the social value function (Sen, 2017) and the culture of poverty (Hays, 2003) when analyzing social welfare and services from the aforementioned reconceptualized perspective become utilizable theories, models, and instruments that push social thinkers to seriously come up with alternatives to existing welfare systems. From a more practical, experience-near approach, welfare has once again stolen the limelight, thanks (or no thanks) to the nearing Philippine elections and the aid packages to help Filipinos heal, recover, and rebuild after the pandemic. What are the millions of Filipinos thinking about the 200-peso monthly ayuda? How did they feel when the president raised this to 500? When candidates for president spoke about accounting for the social costs of fiscal policy and administration, what new welfare systems can be engendered? What perceptible changes will the next presidency have in raising the Quality of Life and wellbeing of Rubelyn, Venus, and the millions of Filipinos who depend on welfare?

References

Bacchi, C. (2009). Analysing policy: What’s the problem represented to be? Pearson Australia.

Cannan, C., & Warren, C. (Eds.). (2003). Social action with children and families. Routledge.

Hays, S. (2003). Flat broke with children: Women in the age of welfare reform. Oxford University Press. Humphries, B. (Ed.). (2000). Research in social care and social welfare. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Jansson, B. S. (2020). Social welfare policy and advocacy: Advancing social justice through eight policy sectors (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications Inc. Sen, A. (2017). Collective choice and social welfare. Harvard University Press.

Appendix A

Interview Summaries I conducted an interview with Mrs Venus Ilustrisimo, 43 years old, from Bantayan Island, last February 5,2022 around 7:30 in the evening. Her husband’s name is Rodrigo Ilustrisimo, 43 years old. She has two children, Jay Markim Ilustrisimo, 17 years old, and Mona Rose Ilustrisimo, 15 years old. They are beneficiaries of the 4Ps program. Venus joined the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program in 2007. She is so happy to be a part of the program, because it really helps defray monthly expenses for their children’s food, medicine, and education. She receives PhP 6,300 every 2 months from the 4Ps. Delivering her baby was paid for by Philhealth. 4Ps provides conditional grants to beneficiaries worth PhP 6,000 a year or PhP 500 per month per household for health and nutrition expenses, and PhP 3,000 for one school year or PhP 300 a month per child for educational expenses. 4Ps provides cash grants to the poorest of the poor and keeps children age 0 to 18 healthy and in school. A household with three qualified children can have a subsidy of PhP 1,400 per month or PhP 15,000 annually as long as they comply with the conditions.

Written by Brandon C. Lee

I spoke with two 4Ps (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program) beneficiaries: Rubelyn Coyoca, a 40-year-old massage therapist and 4Ps Parent leader, and his son Reymart Coyoca, a 13-year-old Grade 7 student. Rubelyn’s three children, including his son Reymart, are recipients of the 4Ps. Her family has greatly benefited from the program. It assists them in meeting their necessities as well as her children’s education and health. She spent the money she received from 4Ps to buy her children’s essentials, such as vitamins. She also saves 1,000 Pesos in the bank for her children’s future and for emergencies because the 4Ps only provides them money every two months, making it difficult for them to meet daily demands, especially since her husband died. 4Ps is extremely beneficial since it assists parents who are unemployed or unable to send their children to school. To put it another way, it benefits them financially. The program also encourages youngsters to participate in various activities and broaden their knowledge. It supported Rubelyn’s children in pursuing their passions, becoming professionals, and living their aspirations. Reymart received 600 Pesos when he was in elementary school. This decreased to 500 when he reached junior high school. The program motivated Reymart to work hard and be a good son and student. Written by Rose Anne T. Nacorda


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20 Comments

Ashley Mae Avila · June 1, 2022 at 7:23 am

(1) It assists them in meeting their necessities as well as her children’s education and health. (2) Some Filipino beneficiaries are glad that it increased to 500, but some are not totally contented. as of now I really don’t know what are the becoming changes in the quality of life for us, especially for those who are in need, like Venus and ruby. I just hope that the government will handle this carefully and manage this kind of problem to help us people.

As I connect these statements to a social cognitive theory, it seems that we Filipinos are abusing government help because of our behavior of being lazy and I think that is one of the reasons why the Philippines are still in a tragedy when it comes to developing. And I have so much learned of that from social cognitive theory.
In order to maximize the benefits of the welfare, the package is to determine who are the best beneficiaries by doing some assessment or interview for every applicant for beneficiaries to identify their basic needs and to find out their behavior in taking advantage of the program.
What I have learned from social cognitive principle or in the theory that helps the beneficiaries can be targeted by Cease was the Observational Learning, which asserts that people/government can witness and observe a behavior conducted, and then reproduce those actions. We will achieved this by interact those benefaciaries and evaluate their behavior.

    Ashley Mae Avila · June 1, 2022 at 7:24 am

    It’s just my Oppinion hehe

Elizer C. Talisic elizertalisic · June 1, 2022 at 9:03 am

Instead of just listening to some agenda, I believe the government should focus on what they observe. They should pay close attention to what changes need to be made in order for the family to continue and live sustainably. They should also choose crucial commodities to serve rather than random items because there have been instances where welfare packages have included missing or unneeded items rather than needed goods for the family to use. I learned that by employing observational learning, you can have a better understanding of the problem in your area, such as this, where many families are concerned about how they received government assistance. Observation, attentiveness in your environment, retention, and also reinforcement by doing what is correct can all be used to benefit the government and its citizens. This can be accomplished through cooperation and a greater grasp of the conditions surrounding the government and its citizens.

Brandon Alex Chua Lee Brandon Alex Chua Lee · June 2, 2022 at 7:42 am

(psych 102)
How can we use behavioral principles in improving community welfare and services? More specifically, what Skinnerian principles can we utilize in order to help individuals on welfare to achieve the “good life”.

As what I have know so far on how a behavior principles may improve a community welfare and services, is by rewarding a certain individual when they are able to achieve a certain goal and it gives them the some motivation in doing a certain kind of task in the community. On the other hand, for example is when a young child can learn how to walk and identify things properly the child will be rewarded by their parents so the child wants to learn more to earn another reward and this is something we should apply in our community, so that people will be so eager to work and it makes people feel satisfied, since they like to work hard just to get a reward in return especially in their work and school and giving people a reward is always the answer to make people satisfied at all times which could let people live in a good life.

Jonieza Manayaga · June 2, 2022 at 1:11 pm

Jonieza E. Manayaga

Existentialism is the philosophical belief that we are each responsible for creating purpose or meaning in our own lives. So, our individual purpose and meaning is not given to us by Gods, governments, teachers or other authorities. It is crafted by our individual selves. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), as perceived by Venus and Rubelyn, 4P’s beneficiaries, is a short term poverty alleviation which had help them financially, particularly with their children’s health, nutrition, and education through providing conditional cash grants. Although, majority of the beneficiaries/families claimed that this program is a great help, we can’t deny the fact that there are still loopholes and some changes to be done for it to be considered constructive. Because if we scrutinized this program based on existentialism, sadly, this will unsuccessfully alleviate the battle of poverty and other problems in a greater cause. In addition, poverty is not just about being financially unstable, uneducated, and ill-fed. There are more reasons than that, which cash assistance alone won’t suffice. Hence, upon implementing programs, government should try to be objective and at the same time subjective. There are a lot of factors to dig into and to be addressed as well. Addressing these one by one would be a great help. To be exact, rendering direct and indirect services may help. This may in turn improve their well-being and help them function better. Government must as well focus on providing social services activity that facilitate and strengthen basic social relationships and mutual adjustments between families and/or individuals and their social environment. Improving children’s long-term outcomes can be targeted for change. More importantly, in order to maximize the benefits of welfare packages for them, beneficiaries/ families should try to being more responsible for their own, challenge their destiny and lived their freedoms. As a basic unit of the society, family (parents and children) must have the courage to exist, to be brave, to be free from fear. By doing so, they will be able to feel secure is the foundation for everything else—building a home, raising children, doing business— finding the meaning of life, for the good of the individual and the society.

Cecil Grace Bontuyan Cecil Grace Bontuyan · June 2, 2022 at 1:11 pm

BONTUYAN, CECIL GRACE N.

What are common (perceived or actual) meanings held by 4P’s beneficiaries?
– 4Ps or Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development. It is a government program that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor in the Philippines. The program beneficiaries of the said program are those age 0-18 year old. The beneficiaries believes that the program’s aim is to lessen the poverty in the country. Also, they believe and they are thankful that the program will help them and their children in school to have a better future. In return, as what I observe the beneficiaries also do their part by being a responsible beneficiaries. They also strive and used the cash grant in a good way. Although some are using the cash assistance in a bad way but we cannot blame them maybe because of the environment where they came from why they think and behave that way.
– Also, the 4Ps is currently the world’s fourth-largest CCT program based on population coverage because they also prioritize other developments such as generating jobs and creating livelihood opportunities for the poors and those in needs.

What are meanings or purposes that can be targeted for CHANGE among those in welfare (i.e. 4Ps) in order to maximize the benefits of welfare packages for them?

– Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino program shows positive impact on the concerns which are directly targeted by the conditionalities such as in children’s education, and health. However there is a need to assess changes beyond the compliance of households to pantawid conditionalities and how the positive impact of the program be sustained after its beneficiaries have graduated from the program. These conditionalities cover the following;
First is the value for education. As what I learned in existentialism theory in psychology, everyone of us are born without any purpose but we have the ability to create our own purpose and senses in life. The beneficiaries of 4ps must value education and appreciate the existence of the program.
Second, the increased health seeking behavior
Third, being a responsible parenthood and lastly the
community participation and empowerment.
In this way, we can see how the program maximizes the benefits of welfare for the beneficiaries.

Jaxanette S. Ramonal · June 4, 2022 at 5:13 am

Answer: While 500 pesos, which President said should be given to the poor as a subsidy amid surging commodity prices, looked like a lot compared to the initially proposed 200 pesos, the amount was still far from what ordinary Filipinos need. The current account deficit is largely determined by the relationship between government spending and tax revenues, and by balance of payments, one means the current account balance. Then the government’s spending, will enlarge the current account deficit largely by raising. Learning this theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior. The 4Ps is a development measure that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor to invest in their children’s and their own futures, and improve health, nutrition, and education of children.

Apple Janne Llaguno · June 4, 2022 at 8:59 am

Social welfare is a crucial weapon for redistribution, social cohesion, and solidarity, and it must be at the center of the European project’s building. When social and labor market policies are designed properly, they may serve to promote social justice as well as economic efficiency and productivity.

Joana Recongco Espinas · June 4, 2022 at 11:27 am

1. What are modeled or observed behaviors that can be targeted for CHANGE among those in welfare (i.e. 4Ps) in order to maximize the benefits of welfare packages for them?

1. Taking the example of 4Ps members, the behaviours that can be obviously observed is being too reliant to the government. 4Ps members receive money from the government every quarter of the year to help them aids their needs, since 4Ps members are those who are inadequate of funds and incapable for abundance, they have this privilege support from the government, however 4Ps members became too entitled and not even doing something to help themselves, worst is that they even used the money for their vices and pleasures that supposedly to be used for the needs of the family. Some of the beneficiaries don’t have this attitude yet, they secure their basic needs over wants, nevertheless, with the influence of the Thier friends and neighbors, they are able to copy the behaviour which results are nothing but pushing them to suffer and stay being inadequate. There are actually a lot of social cognitive behaviours that we can get and learn from them, but one thing that top the most is their observational behaviour.

2. Using social-cognitive principles you have learned from the discussions, what shaped behaviors among beneficiaries can be targeted to CEASE? How can this be achieved?

Their observational behaviour is something that should be ceased, if not immediately, must be done gradually. And this could be achieved by providing family counseling, planning and other counseling programme that could be of help to shape the mind of the most filipino, especially those who are titled of incapable of abundance.

Maelanie Llavado · June 6, 2022 at 3:27 am

4Ps is very helpful to families who are having difficulties in their daily needs. The child should study and do well, should participate in every activities being implemented in order to help maximize the benefits of welfare packages for them and to have a more productive well-being and social participation. In social-cognitive, people can learn through observing others, so it is better to become a good observer in order to learn new skills and knowledge by just watching and it is being achieved through experiences.

ANGEL MAE EGAGAMAO · June 6, 2022 at 7:35 am

4Ps program is such a great help for the people in the edge of the society. Base on the interview I can see that this programs does not just support them financially but also being economical. They learned how to save in order to sustain in their daily finances. And as for the students this program will also drive them to achieve their dreams and goals in life.
This characteristic are such a good example to others who are financially stable but still striving to sustain because of being extravagant in their daily lives. We should learn how to manage our finances and must be smart enough to differ needs from wants.

Carille Huyo-a · June 6, 2022 at 8:36 am

Most of families that are registered in the 4Ps became more dependent on the ayuda (cash grants). The purpose of 4Ps is to provide and help improve the health, nutrition, and education for the children but most/some of the parents of the children became lazy and even use the ayuda for their benefit and not for their kids. That’s why for me, it’s not that helpful. It helped them temporarily but it didn’t really solved the problem of the poor families.

I believe this kind of behavior is related to the first principle of social cognitive which is the power of the situation over behavior, families who are registered in 4Ps are influenced by each other’s perspective that they don’t need to work and earn since they receive a monthly/yearly ayuda from the government. But families must realize that it is not good to rely and wait for help, they must learn how to work for themselves and for their family.

Carille Huyo-a · June 6, 2022 at 8:37 am

Most of families that are registered in the 4Ps became more dependent on the ayuda (cash grants). The purpose of 4Ps is to provide and help improve the health, nutrition, and education for the children but most/some of the parents of the children became lazy and even use the ayuda for their benefit and not for their kids. That’s why for me, it’s not that helpful. It helped them temporarily but it didn’t really solved the problem of the poor families.

I believe this kind of behavior is related to the first principle of social cognitive which is the power of the situation over behavior, families who are registered in 4Ps are influenced by each other’s perspective that they don’t need to work and earn since they receive a monthly/yearly ayuda from the government. But families must realized it is not good to rely and wait for help, they must learn how to work for themselves and for their family.

Ermac , Sr. Hanelyn · June 9, 2022 at 8:01 am

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a national government-sponsored human development initiative that gives conditional cash payments to the poorest of the poor to enhance their health, nutrition, and education.This is a welfare approach that gives payments to severely poor families to better their lives, nourishment, and learning, especially for children ages.
This program had bring  a  good impact on our brothers and sisters, particularly those living in rural areas. Many of them were able to meet their basic necessities. However, it appears that some people are just concerned with what they receive and are already satisfied with the quantity they have. Some people take advantage of it instead of using it for the welfare of the family. To assess the circumstance, they should consider and devise a strategy that will benefit them. Perhaps they will use the money to establish a small business, given that there has always been a strong desire to do so. The willingness to do so is very important, as long as they have a plan in place for the future. To provide cash help to the underprivileged in order to alleviate their necessities. Everything has to be done in order to improve things , to find a life satisying . Opportunities are provided by the government  and beneficiaries  must to develop  in order to live a good and healthy life .

Russel Fe Redoblado · June 9, 2022 at 8:08 am

4P’s program is such a great help to people because they can have their support in life in order to send their children to school. To provide the basic needs of their children like food,medicine, and school supplies. It can add to there income especially to those family who have small amount of income every month and cannot support the everyday expenses of the family. That’s why, the 4P’s beneficiaries should use the money wisely. They should spend the money on important things that they need, not what they want. They can buy gloceries or save the money because we don’t know what happen next.

Ricelyn L. Lendio · June 9, 2022 at 9:24 am

Observational learning is a major component of Bandura’s social learning. Perhaps the most important aspect of observational learning involves motivation. He emphasized that four conditions were nesesary in any form of observing and modeling behavior:attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. Using the social cognitive principle that I’ve learned that shaped behavior among the beneficiaries of 4Ps the national government provides cash grants to the poorest of the poor, to beneficiaries improvided that they comply with set of conditions required by the program. In general, the following qualification must be satisfied to become eligible for the program of 4Ps. However, interventions shall conduct by respective government agency. The qualified household-beneficiary member based on a specific case management intervention plan to address the reasons. Venus and Rubelyn want to face life as it is, no matter how challenging or uncomfortable it may feel.

Ermac , Sr. Hanelyn · June 9, 2022 at 9:32 am

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a national government-sponsored human development initiative that gives conditional cash payments to the poorest of the poor to enhance their health, nutrition, and education. This is a welfare approach that gives payments to severely poor families to better their lives, nourishment, and learning, especially for children ages.
This program had bring  a  good impact on our brothers and sisters, particularly those living in rural areas. Many of them were able to meet their basic necessities. However, it appears that some people are just concerned with what they receive and are already satisfied with the quantity they have. Some people take advantage of it instead of using it for the welfare of the family. To assess the circumstance, they should consider and devise a strategy that will benefit them. Perhaps they will use the money to establish a small business, given that there has always been a strong desire to do so. The willingness to do so is critical, as long as they have a plan in place for the future. To provide cash help to the underprivileged in order to alleviate their necessities. Everything has to be done in order to improve things , to find a life satisying . Opportunities are provided by the government  and beneficiaries  must to develop  in order to live a good and healthy life .

Dindy Bandolon · June 9, 2022 at 11:20 pm

Many Filipino policymakers, legislators, and intellectuals want to abolish 4Ps. I think this program is very good and very useful, especially to the families who are really qualified to be part of the program. Instead of abolishing the program, I think it is better to clean the system. Many Filipino deserves this kind of help, and I don’t think that people who are privileged will understand that.

In the interview, Rubelyn’s family is qualified to be part of the 4Ps and they greatly benefited from this. She is not solely dependent on the ayuda, but it is a very big help, in assisting and supporting Rubelyn as a single parent. Even though they receive money monthly, she also works and gains a salary. She is also able to save money for emergency cases. She is one of the examples of 4Ps members who are spending ayuda in the right way. Many Filipinos are hard-working pero pinagkaitan, I think if they will receive help from the government they will show good behavior and be motivated.

Ermac , Sr. Hanelyn · June 10, 2022 at 6:36 am

The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a national government-sponsored human development initiative that gives conditional cash payments to the poorest of the poor to enhance their health, nutrition, and education.This is a welfare approach that gives payments to severely poor families to better their lives, nourishment, and learning, especially for children ages.
This program had bring  a  good impact on our brothers and sisters, particularly those living in rural areas. Many of them were able to meet their basic necessities. However, it appears that some people are just concerned with what they receive and are already satisfied with the quantity they have. Some people take advantage of it instead of using it for the welfare of the family. To assess the circumstance, they should consider and devise a strategy that will benefit them. Perhaps they will use the money to establish a small business, given that there has always been a strong desire to do so.
The willingness to do so is critical, as long as they have a plan in place for the future. To provide cash help to the underprivileged in order to alleviate their necessities. Everything has to be done in order to improve things , to find a life satisfyingly . Opportunities are provided by the government  and beneficiaries  must to develop  in order to live a good and healthy life .

Kyle Judilla · June 13, 2022 at 5:12 am

The 4Ps program is a huge aid to persons on the margins of society also the 4Ps is a very big help to our Filipino People. Based on the interview that I’ve read, I believe that this program benefits them monetarily. They learned how to save in order to make ends meet on a daily basis. This quality sets a great example for people who are financially secure but struggle to maintain because they are excessive in their daily life. We should learn how to manage our funds and limits to spending not important things in life

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